Resources for Creating Performance Assessments

flickr photo by stefanweihs shared under a Creative Commons (BY) license

There are a variety of resources available to assist educators in the creation of strong performance assessment tasks.  Some of the best ones come from Jay McTighe and the Understanding by Design (UbD) community.

  1. What is a performance task? 

In this first post, McTighe addresses basic questions about performance assessment tasks:

“A performance task is any learning activity or assessment that asks students to perform to demonstrate their knowledge, understanding and proficiency. Performance tasks yield a tangible product and/or performance that serve as evidence of learning. Unlike a selected-response item (e.g., multiple-choice or matching) that asks students to select from given alternatives, a performance task presents a situation that calls for learners to apply their learning in context.

Performance tasks are routinely used in certain disciplines, such as visual and performing arts, physical education, and career-technology where performance is the natural focus of instruction. However, such tasks can (and should) be used in every subject area and at all grade levels.”  The post continues with characteristics and examples. Read it here.

2. Why should we use performance assessment tasks?

In this post, McTighe explains why performance assessment tasks are superior to traditional forms of assessment.

“Authentic tasks are needed to both develop and assess many of the most significant outcomes identified in the current sets of academic standards as well as trans-disciplinary 21st Century Skills; and 2) Research on effective learning from cognitive psychology and neuroscience underscores the importance of providing students with multiple opportunities to apply their learning to relevant, real-world situations. In this blog post, I will explore the first foundational idea.” Read the rest of the post here.

3. How can educators design performance assessment tasks?

In this post  McTighe outlines the steps educators can use to develop strong and well-aligned performance assessment tasks.

“Here is a quick check to see if a performance task is well aligned to targeted standard(s)/ outcome(s): Show your task to another teacher or a team and ask them to tell you which standards/outcomes are being addressed. If they can determine all of your targeted standards/outcomes, then the alignment is sound. If they can infer one, but not all, of your targeted standards/outcomes, then you will likely need to modify the task (or eliminate one or more of the outcomes since they are not being addressed.)

The task calls for understanding and transfer, not simply recall or a formulaic response.

Students show evidence of their understanding when they can effectively do two things:

  1. apply their learning to new or unfamiliar contexts; i.e., they can transfer their learning;
  2. explain their process as well as their answer(s).

Therefore, when designing a performance task, educators should make sure that it requires application, not simply information. The task must also call for learners to present the why not just the what; to explain a concept in their own words; use new examples to illustrate a theory; and/or defend their position against critique.”  

Read the entire post here.

For a basic big picture look at performance assessment tasks, ASCD has an overview that is worth a quick skim here.





How to Make Your Questions Essential

flickr photo by mripp shared under a Creative Commons (BY) license

flickr photo by mripp shared under a Creative Commons (BY) license

Strong, provocative questions drive the best discussions and push student thinking. This Educational Leadership piece outlines seven ways to make your essential questions hit their target.

Essential questions rarely arise in a first draft. Here’s how to construct good ones.

The well-known aphorism that “writing is revision” applies particularly well to crafting essential questions. With more than 30 years’ experience in teaching through questions and helping educators create great unit-framing queries, we’ve repeatedly seen the wisdom of this saying.

But what makes a question essential in the first place? Essential questions foster the kinds of inquiries, discussions, and reflections that help learners find meaning in their learning and achieve deeper thought and better quality in their work. Essential questions meet the following criteria:

  • They stimulate ongoing thinking and inquiry.
  • They’re arguable, with multiple plausible answers.
  • They raise further questions.
  • They spark discussion and debate.
  • They demand evidence and reasoning because varying answers exist.
  • They point to big ideas and pressing issues.
  • They fruitfully recur throughout the unit or year.
  • The answers proposed are tentative and may change in light of new experiences and deepening understanding (McTighe & Wiggins, 2013).”  Read the entire article here.

Strategies for Enhancing Student Engagement

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When our students are engaged, everything feels right with the world.

Student engagement is essential for learning and strong school communities. In this Edutopia post, humanities teacher Joshua Block shares six strategies to strengthen engagement:

“Each new school year is an opportunity for me to develop new skills and try out different strategies with my classes. Throughout this year I want to use backward design to plan for deeper student engagement. I’ve come up with a list of six different strategies that I’ll refer to regularly as I plan my courses:

1. Authentic Learning

I strive to find ways to have my students do work that has meaning in the world, beyond classroom walls. As I plan, I will attempt to always have a rationale for learning content and a clear reason for doing the work that we do. In the past, I’ve had success designing projects that grapple with current issues or are created for an outside audience.”  Read the rest of the piece and the other five strategies here.

Enduring Understandings, Essential Questions, & Transfer Goals

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There are three components to Understanding by Design (UbD) that occasionally confuse those new to UbD: Essential Questions, Enduring Understandings & Transfer Goals. You can read about each of them here in a very helpful handout titled “UbD in a Nutshell” from Jay McTighe’s site.

On Grant Wiggin’s site he writes:

“An essential question is – well, essential: important, vital, at the heart of the matter – the essence of the issue. Think of questions in your life that fit this definition – but don’t just yet think about it like a teacher; consider the question as a thoughtful adult. What kinds of questions come to mind? What is a question that any thoughtful and intellectually-alive person ponders and should keep pondering?” Read more here.

Multiple sites provide the following definition for enduring understandings:

“Enduring understandings are statements summarizing important ideas and core processes that are central to a discipline and have lasting value beyond the classroom. They synthesize what students should understand—not just know or do—as a result of studying a particular content area. Moreover, they articulate what students should “revisit” over the course of their lifetimes in relationship to the content area.

Enduring understandings:

  1. frame the big ideas that give meaning and lasting importance to such discrete curriculum elements as facts and skills
  2. can transfer to other fields as well as adult life
  3. “unpack” areas of the curriculum where students may struggle to gain understanding or demonstrate misunderstandings and misconceptions
  4. provide a conceptual foundation for studying the content area and
  5. are deliberately framed as declarative sentences that present major curriculum generalizations and recurrent ideas.”     Accessed here.

Transfer Goals 

Transfer goals highlight the effective uses of understanding, knowledge, and skill that we seek in the long run; i.e., what we want students to be able to do when they confront new challenges – both in and outside of school. There is a small number of overarching, long-term transfer goals in each subject area.” Jay McTighe & Grant Wiggins. Accessed here.

More on transfer goals can be found here.


Understanding by Design

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Like many international schools, AAS-Sofia uses Understanding by Design for our curriculum framework. It was selected for a variety of reasons, including that it seemed the perfect marriage for teaching standards with an inquiry approach.

The best overview of UbD is a 13-page white paper available here. Another excellent resource is an article by Jay McTighe and Elliott Seif called Teaching for Meaning and Understanding: A Summary of Underlying Theory and Research.